Attention Mechanisms

Adaptive Masking

Introduced by Sukhbaatar et al. in Adaptive Attention Span in Transformers

Adaptive Masking is a type of attention mechanism that allows a model to learn its own context size to attend over. For each head in Multi-Head Attention, a masking function is added to control for the span of the attention. A masking function is a non-increasing function that maps a distance to a value in $\left[0, 1\right]$. Adaptive masking takes the following soft masking function $m_{z}$ parametrized by a real value $z$ in $\left[0, S\right]$:

$$ m_{z}\left(x\right) = \min\left[\max\left[\frac{1}{R}\left(R+z-x\right), 0\right], 1\right] $$

where $R$ is a hyper-parameter that controls its softness. The shape of this piecewise function as a function of the distance. This soft masking function is inspired by Jernite et al. (2017). The attention weights from are then computed on the masked span:

$$ a_{tr} = \frac{m_{z}\left(t-r\right)\exp\left(s_{tr}\right)}{\sum^{t-1}_{q=t-S}m_{z}\left(t-q\right)\exp\left(s_{tq}\right)}$$

A $\mathcal{l}_{1}$ penalization is added on the parameters $z_{i}$ for each attention head $i$ of the model to the loss function:

$$ L = - \log{P}\left(w_{1}, \dots, w_{T}\right) + \frac{\lambda}{M}\sum_{i}z_{i} $$

where $\lambda > 0$ is the regularization hyperparameter, and $M$ is the number of heads in each layer. This formulation is differentiable in the parameters $z_{i}$, and learnt jointly with the rest of the model.

Source: Adaptive Attention Span in Transformers

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Task Papers Share
Language Modelling 3 60.00%
3D Part Segmentation 1 20.00%
Machine Translation 1 20.00%

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