A Generalized Deep Learning Framework for Whole-Slide Image Segmentation and Analysis

Histopathology tissue analysis is considered the gold standard in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Given the large size of these images and the increase in the number of potential cancer cases, an automated solution as an aid to histopathologists is highly desirable. In the recent past, deep learning-based techniques have provided state of the art results in a wide variety of image analysis tasks, including analysis of digitized slides. However, the size of images and variability in histopathology tasks makes it a challenge to develop an integrated framework for histopathology image analysis. We propose a deep learning-based framework for histopathology tissue analysis. We demonstrate the generalizability of our framework, including training and inference, on several open-source datasets, which include CAMELYON (breast cancer metastases), DigestPath (colon cancer), and PAIP (liver cancer) datasets. We discuss multiple types of uncertainties pertaining to data and model, namely aleatoric and epistemic, respectively. Simultaneously, we demonstrate our model generalization across different data distribution by evaluating some samples on TCGA data. On CAMELYON16 test data (n=139) for the task of lesion detection, the FROC score achieved was 0.86 and in the CAMELYON17 test-data (n=500) for the task of pN-staging the Cohen's kappa score achieved was 0.9090 (third in the open leaderboard). On DigestPath test data (n=212) for the task of tumor segmentation, a Dice score of 0.782 was achieved (fourth in the challenge). On PAIP test data (n=40) for the task of viable tumor segmentation, a Jaccard Index of 0.75 (third in the challenge) was achieved, and for viable tumor burden, a score of 0.633 was achieved (second in the challenge). Our entire framework and related documentation are freely available at GitHub and PyPi.

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