A La Carte Embedding: Cheap but Effective Induction of Semantic Feature Vectors

Motivations like domain adaptation, transfer learning, and feature learning have fueled interest in inducing embeddings for rare or unseen words, n-grams, synsets, and other textual features. This paper introduces a la carte embedding, a simple and general alternative to the usual word2vec-based approaches for building such representations that is based upon recent theoretical results for GloVe-like embeddings. Our method relies mainly on a linear transformation that is efficiently learnable using pretrained word vectors and linear regression. This transform is applicable on the fly in the future when a new text feature or rare word is encountered, even if only a single usage example is available. We introduce a new dataset showing how the a la carte method requires fewer examples of words in context to learn high-quality embeddings and we obtain state-of-the-art results on a nonce task and some unsupervised document classification tasks.

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Results from the Paper

Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Result Benchmark
Sentiment Analysis CR byte mLSTM7 Accuracy 90.6 # 5
Sentiment Analysis MPQA byte mLSTM7 Accuracy 88.8 # 3
Sentiment Analysis MR byte mLSTM7 Accuracy 86.8 # 4
Sentiment Analysis SST-2 Binary classification byte mLSTM7 Accuracy 91.7 # 49
Sentiment Analysis SST-5 Fine-grained classification byte mLSTM7 Accuracy 54.6 # 8
Subjectivity Analysis SUBJ byte mLSTM7 Accuracy 94.7 # 8
Text Classification TREC-6 byte mLSTM7 Error 9.6 # 18


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