A Latent Encoder Coupled Generative Adversarial Network (LE-GAN) for Efficient Hyperspectral Image Super-resolution

Realistic hyperspectral image (HSI) super-resolution (SR) techniques aim to generate a high-resolution (HR) HSI with higher spectral and spatial fidelity from its low-resolution (LR) counterpart. The generative adversarial network (GAN) has proven to be an effective deep learning framework for image super-resolution. However, the optimisation process of existing GAN-based models frequently suffers from the problem of mode collapse, leading to the limited capacity of spectral-spatial invariant reconstruction. This may cause the spectral-spatial distortion on the generated HSI, especially with a large upscaling factor. To alleviate the problem of mode collapse, this work has proposed a novel GAN model coupled with a latent encoder (LE-GAN), which can map the generated spectral-spatial features from the image space to the latent space and produce a coupling component to regularise the generated samples. Essentially, we treat an HSI as a high-dimensional manifold embedded in a latent space. Thus, the optimisation of GAN models is converted to the problem of learning the distributions of high-resolution HSI samples in the latent space, making the distributions of the generated super-resolution HSIs closer to those of their original high-resolution counterparts. We have conducted experimental evaluations on the model performance of super-resolution and its capability in alleviating mode collapse. The proposed approach has been tested and validated based on two real HSI datasets with different sensors (i.e. AVIRIS and UHD-185) for various upscaling factors and added noise levels, and compared with the state-of-the-art super-resolution models (i.e. HyCoNet, LTTR, BAGAN, SR- GAN, WGAN).

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