Instance level detection and segmentation of thoracic diseases or abnormalities are crucial for automatic diagnosis in chest X-ray images. Leveraging on constant structure and disease relations extracted from domain knowledge, we propose a structure-aware relation network (SAR-Net) extending Mask R-CNN. The SAR-Net consists of three relation modules: 1. the anatomical structure relation module encoding spatial relations between diseases and anatomical parts. 2. the contextual relation module aggregating clues based on query-key pair of disease RoI and lung fields. 3. the disease relation module propagating co-occurrence and causal relations into disease proposals. Towards making a practical system, we also provide ChestX-Det, a chest X-Ray dataset with instance-level annotations (boxes and masks). ChestX-Det is a subset of the public dataset NIH ChestX-ray14. It contains ~3500 images of 13 common disease categories labeled by three board-certified radiologists. We evaluate our SAR-Net on it and another dataset DR-Private. Experimental results show that it can enhance the strong baseline of Mask R-CNN with significant improvements. The ChestX-Det is released at https://github.com/Deepwise-AILab/ChestX-Det-Dataset.