Recent trends in deep learning (DL) imposed hardware accelerators as the most viable solution for several classes of high-performance computing (HPC) applications such as image classification, computer vision, and speech recognition. This survey summarizes and classifies the most recent advances in designing DL accelerators suitable to reach the performance requirements of HPC applications. In particular, it highlights the most advanced approaches to support deep learning accelerations including not only GPU and TPU-based accelerators but also design-specific hardware accelerators such as FPGA-based and ASIC-based accelerators, Neural Processing Units, open hardware RISC-V-based accelerators and co-processors. The survey also describes accelerators based on emerging memory technologies and computing paradigms, such as 3D-stacked Processor-In-Memory, non-volatile memories (mainly, Resistive RAM and Phase Change Memories) to implement in-memory computing, Neuromorphic Processing Units, and accelerators based on Multi-Chip Modules. The survey classifies the most influential architectures and technologies proposed in the last years, with the purpose of offering the reader a comprehensive perspective in the rapidly evolving field of deep learning. Finally, it provides some insights into future challenges in DL accelerators such as quantum accelerators and photonics.

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