A Unified Remote Sensing Anomaly Detector Across Modalities and Scenes via Deviation Relationship Learning

11 Oct 2023  ·  Jingtao Li, Xinyu Wang, Hengwei Zhao, Liangpei Zhang, Yanfei Zhong ·

Remote sensing anomaly detector can find the objects deviating from the background as potential targets. Given the diversity in earth anomaly types, a unified anomaly detector across modalities and scenes should be cost-effective and flexible to new earth observation sources and anomaly types. However, the current anomaly detectors are limited to a single modality and single scene, since they aim to learn the varying background distribution. Motivated by the universal anomaly deviation pattern, in that anomalies exhibit deviations from their local context, we exploit this characteristic to build a unified anomaly detector. Firstly, we reformulate the anomaly detection task as an undirected bilayer graph based on the deviation relationship, where the anomaly score is modeled as the conditional probability, given the pattern of the background and normal objects. The learning objective is then expressed as a conditional probability ranking problem. Furthermore, we design an instantiation of the reformulation in the data, architecture, and optimization aspects. Simulated spectral and spatial anomalies drive the instantiated architecture. The model is optimized directly for the conditional probability ranking. The proposed model was validated in five modalities including the hyperspectral, visible light, synthetic aperture radar (SAR), infrared and low light to show its unified detection ability.

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