AdaMix: Mixture-of-Adapter for Parameter-efficient Tuning of Large Language Models

Fine-tuning large-scale pre-trained language models to downstream tasks require updating hundreds of millions of parameters. This not only increases the serving cost to store a large copy of the model weights for every task, but also exhibits instability during few-shot task adaptation. Parameter-efficient techniques have been developed that tune small trainable components (e.g., adapters) injected in the large model while keeping most of the model weights frozen. The prevalent mechanism to increase adapter capacity is to increase the bottleneck dimension which increases the adapter parameters. In this work, we introduce a new mechanism to improve adapter capacity without increasing parameters or computational cost by two key techniques. (i) We introduce multiple shared adapter components in each layer of the Transformer architecture. We leverage sparse learning via random routing to update the adapter parameters (encoder is kept frozen) resulting in the same amount of computational cost (FLOPs) as that of training a single adapter. (ii) We propose a simple merging mechanism to average the weights of multiple adapter components to collapse to a single adapter in each Transformer layer, thereby, keeping the overall parameters also the same but with significant performance improvement. We demonstrate these techniques to work well across multiple task settings including fully supervised and few-shot Natural Language Understanding tasks. By only tuning 0.23% of a pre-trained language model's parameters, our model outperforms the full model fine-tuning performance and several competing methods.

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