Adversarial Perturbations Prevail in the Y-Channel of the YCbCr Color Space

25 Feb 2020  ·  Camilo Pestana, Naveed Akhtar, Wei Liu, David Glance, Ajmal Mian ·

Deep learning offers state of the art solutions for image recognition. However, deep models are vulnerable to adversarial perturbations in images that are subtle but significantly change the model's prediction. In a white-box attack, these perturbations are generally learned for deep models that operate on RGB images and, hence, the perturbations are equally distributed in the RGB color space. In this paper, we show that the adversarial perturbations prevail in the Y-channel of the YCbCr space. Our finding is motivated from the fact that the human vision and deep models are more responsive to shape and texture rather than color. Based on our finding, we propose a defense against adversarial images. Our defence, coined ResUpNet, removes perturbations only from the Y-channel by exploiting ResNet features in an upsampling framework without the need for a bottleneck. At the final stage, the untouched CbCr-channels are combined with the refined Y-channel to restore the clean image. Note that ResUpNet is model agnostic as it does not modify the DNN structure. ResUpNet is trained end-to-end in Pytorch and the results are compared to existing defence techniques in the input transformation category. Our results show that our approach achieves the best balance between defence against adversarial attacks such as FGSM, PGD and DDN and maintaining the original accuracies of VGG-16, ResNet50 and DenseNet121 on clean images. We perform another experiment to show that learning adversarial perturbations only for the Y-channel results in higher fooling rates for the same perturbation magnitude.

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