A Unified Analytical Method to Quantify Three Types of Fast Frequency Response from Inverter-based Resources

With more inverter-based resources (IBRs), our power systems have lower frequency nadirs following N-1 contingencies, and undesired under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) can occur. To address this challenge, IBRs can be programmed to provide at least three types of fast frequency response (FFR), e.g., step response, proportional response (P/f droop response), and derivative response (synthetic inertia). However, these heterogeneous FFR challenge the study of power system frequency dynamics. Thus, this paper develops an analytical frequency nadir prediction method that allows for the consideration of all three potential forms of FFR provided by IBRs. The proposed method provides fast and accurate frequency nadir estimation after N-1 generation tripping contingencies. Our method is grounded on the closed-form solution for the frequency nadir, which is solved from the second-order system frequency response model considering the governor dynamics and three types of FFR. The simulation results in the IEEE 39-bus system with different types of FFR demonstrate that the proposed method provides an accurate and fast prediction of the frequency nadir under various disturbances.

Results in Papers With Code
(↓ scroll down to see all results)