Application of Deep Learning in Neuroradiology: Automated Detection of Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage using 2D-Convolutional Neural Networks

10 Oct 2017  ·  Vishal Desai, Adam E. Flanders, Paras Lakhani ·

Background: Deep learning techniques have achieved high accuracy in image classification tasks, and there is interest in applicability to neuroimaging critical findings. This study evaluates the efficacy of 2D deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) for detecting basal ganglia (BG) hemorrhage on noncontrast head CT. Materials and Methods: 170 unique de-identified HIPAA-compliant noncontrast head CTs were obtained, those with and without BG hemorrhage. 110 cases were held-out for test, and 60 were split into training (45) and validation (15), consisting of 20 right, 20 left, and 20 no BG hemorrhage. Data augmentation was performed to increase size and variation of the training dataset by 48-fold. Two DCNNs were used to classify the images-AlexNet and GoogLeNet-using untrained networks and those pre-trained on ImageNet. Area under the curves (AUC) for the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated, using the DeLong method for statistical comparison of ROCs. Results: The best performing model was the pre-trained augmented GoogLeNet, which had an AUC of 1.00 in classification of hemorrhage. Preprocessing augmentation increased accuracy for all networks (p<0.001), and pretrained networks outperformed untrained ones (p<0.001) for the unaugmented models. The best performing GoogLeNet model (AUC 1.00) outperformed the best performing AlexNet model (AUC 0.95)(p=0.01). Conclusion: For this dataset, the best performing DCNN identified BG hemorrhage on noncontrast head CT with an AUC of 1.00. Pretrained networks and data augmentation increased classifier accuracy. Future prospective research would be important to determine if the accuracy can be maintained on a larger cohort of patients and for very small hemorrhages.

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