Artificial Intelligence in Glioma Imaging: Challenges and Advances

28 Nov 2019  ·  Weina Jin, Mostafa Fatehi, Kumar Abhishek, Mayur Mallya, Brian Toyota, Ghassan Hamarneh ·

Primary brain tumors including gliomas continue to pose significant management challenges to clinicians. While the presentation, the pathology, and the clinical course of these lesions are variable, the initial investigations are usually similar. Patients who are suspected to have a brain tumor will be assessed with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The imaging findings are used by neurosurgeons to determine the feasibility of surgical resection and plan such an undertaking. Imaging studies are also an indispensable tool in tracking tumor progression or its response to treatment. As these imaging studies are non-invasive, relatively cheap and accessible to patients, there have been many efforts over the past two decades to increase the amount of clinically-relevant information that can be extracted from brain imaging. Most recently, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been employed to segment and characterize brain tumors, as well as to detect progression or treatment-response. However, the clinical utility of such endeavours remains limited due to challenges in data collection and annotation, model training, and the reliability of AI-generated information. We provide a review of recent advances in addressing the above challenges. First, to overcome the challenge of data paucity, different image imputation and synthesis techniques along with annotation collection efforts are summarized. Next, various training strategies are presented to meet multiple desiderata, such as model performance, generalization ability, data privacy protection, and learning with sparse annotations. Finally, standardized performance evaluation and model interpretability methods have been reviewed. We believe that these technical approaches will facilitate the development of a fully-functional AI tool in the clinical care of patients with gliomas.

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