ViNet: Pushing the limits of Visual Modality for Audio-Visual Saliency Prediction

We propose the ViNet architecture for audio-visual saliency prediction. ViNet is a fully convolutional encoder-decoder architecture. The encoder uses visual features from a network trained for action recognition, and the decoder infers a saliency map via trilinear interpolation and 3D convolutions, combining features from multiple hierarchies. The overall architecture of ViNet is conceptually simple; it is causal and runs in real-time (60 fps). ViNet does not use audio as input and still outperforms the state-of-the-art audio-visual saliency prediction models on nine different datasets (three visual-only and six audio-visual datasets). ViNet also surpasses human performance on the CC, SIM and AUC metrics for the AVE dataset, and to our knowledge, it is the first network to do so. We also explore a variation of ViNet architecture by augmenting audio features into the decoder. To our surprise, upon sufficient training, the network becomes agnostic to the input audio and provides the same output irrespective of the input. Interestingly, we also observe similar behaviour in the previous state-of-the-art models \cite{tsiami2020stavis} for audio-visual saliency prediction. Our findings contrast with previous works on deep learning-based audio-visual saliency prediction, suggesting a clear avenue for future explorations incorporating audio in a more effective manner. The code and pre-trained models are available at

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