Bag of Tricks for Effective Language Model Pretraining and Downstream Adaptation: A Case Study on GLUE

18 Feb 2023  ·  Qihuang Zhong, Liang Ding, Keqin Peng, Juhua Liu, Bo Du, Li Shen, Yibing Zhan, DaCheng Tao ·

This technical report briefly describes our JDExplore d-team's submission Vega v1 on the General Language Understanding Evaluation (GLUE) leaderboard, where GLUE is a collection of nine natural language understanding tasks, including question answering, linguistic acceptability, sentiment analysis, text similarity, paraphrase detection, and natural language inference. [Method] We investigate several effective strategies and choose their best combination setting as the training recipes. As for model structure, we employ the vanilla Transformer with disentangled attention as the basic block encoder. For self-supervised training, we employ the representative denoising objective (i.e., replaced token detection) in phase 1 and combine the contrastive objective (i.e., sentence embedding contrastive learning) with it in phase 2. During fine-tuning, several advanced techniques such as transductive fine-tuning, self-calibrated fine-tuning, and adversarial fine-tuning are adopted. [Results] According to our submission record (Jan. 2022), with our optimized pretraining and fine-tuning strategies, our 1.3 billion model sets new state-of-the-art on 4/9 tasks, achieving the best average score of 91.3. Encouragingly, our Vega v1 is the first to exceed powerful human performance on the two challenging tasks, i.e., SST-2 and WNLI. We believe our empirically successful recipe with a bag of tricks could shed new light on developing efficient discriminative large language models.

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