Beneficial and Harmful Explanatory Machine Learning

9 Sep 2020  ·  Lun Ai, Stephen H. Muggleton, Céline Hocquette, Mark Gromowski, Ute Schmid ·

Given the recent successes of Deep Learning in AI there has been increased interest in the role and need for explanations in machine learned theories. A distinct notion in this context is that of Michie's definition of Ultra-Strong Machine Learning (USML)... USML is demonstrated by a measurable increase in human performance of a task following provision to the human of a symbolic machine learned theory for task performance. A recent paper demonstrates the beneficial effect of a machine learned logic theory for a classification task, yet no existing work to our knowledge has examined the potential harmfulness of machine's involvement for human comprehension during learning. This paper investigates the explanatory effects of a machine learned theory in the context of simple two person games and proposes a framework for identifying the harmfulness of machine explanations based on the Cognitive Science literature. The approach involves a cognitive window consisting of two quantifiable bounds and it is supported by empirical evidence collected from human trials. Our quantitative and qualitative results indicate that human learning aided by a symbolic machine learned theory which satisfies a cognitive window has achieved significantly higher performance than human self learning. Results also demonstrate that human learning aided by a symbolic machine learned theory that fails to satisfy this window leads to significantly worse performance than unaided human learning. read more

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