BRIGHT -- Graph Neural Networks in Real-Time Fraud Detection

Detecting fraudulent transactions is an essential component to control risk in e-commerce marketplaces. Apart from rule-based and machine learning filters that are already deployed in production, we want to enable efficient real-time inference with graph neural networks (GNNs), which is useful to catch multihop risk propagation in a transaction graph. However, two challenges arise in the implementation of GNNs in production. First, future information in a dynamic graph should not be considered in message passing to predict the past. Second, the latency of graph query and GNN model inference is usually up to hundreds of milliseconds, which is costly for some critical online services. To tackle these challenges, we propose a Batch and Real-time Inception GrapH Topology (BRIGHT) framework to conduct an end-to-end GNN learning that allows efficient online real-time inference. BRIGHT framework consists of a graph transformation module (Two-Stage Directed Graph) and a corresponding GNN architecture (Lambda Neural Network). The Two-Stage Directed Graph guarantees that the information passed through neighbors is only from the historical payment transactions. It consists of two subgraphs representing historical relationships and real-time links, respectively. The Lambda Neural Network decouples inference into two stages: batch inference of entity embeddings and real-time inference of transaction prediction. Our experiments show that BRIGHT outperforms the baseline models by >2\% in average w.r.t.~precision. Furthermore, BRIGHT is computationally efficient for real-time fraud detection. Regarding end-to-end performance (including neighbor query and inference), BRIGHT can reduce the P99 latency by >75\%. For the inference stage, our speedup is on average 7.8$\times$ compared to the traditional GNN.

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