Center-based 3D Object Detection and Tracking

Three-dimensional objects are commonly represented as 3D boxes in a point-cloud. This representation mimics the well-studied image-based 2D bounding-box detection but comes with additional challenges. Objects in a 3D world do not follow any particular orientation, and box-based detectors have difficulties enumerating all orientations or fitting an axis-aligned bounding box to rotated objects. In this paper, we instead propose to represent, detect, and track 3D objects as points. Our framework, CenterPoint, first detects centers of objects using a keypoint detector and regresses to other attributes, including 3D size, 3D orientation, and velocity. In a second stage, it refines these estimates using additional point features on the object. In CenterPoint, 3D object tracking simplifies to greedy closest-point matching. The resulting detection and tracking algorithm is simple, efficient, and effective. CenterPoint achieved state-of-the-art performance on the nuScenes benchmark for both 3D detection and tracking, with 65.5 NDS and 63.8 AMOTA for a single model. On the Waymo Open Dataset, CenterPoint outperforms all previous single model method by a large margin and ranks first among all Lidar-only submissions. The code and pretrained models are available at

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Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Result Benchmark
Robust 3D Object Detection KITTI-C CenterPoint mean Corruption Error (mCE) 100.00% # 4
3D Multi-Object Tracking nuScenes CenterPoint-Single amota 0.64 # 47
3D Object Detection nuScenes CenterPoint NDS 0.71 # 63
mAP 0.67 # 65
mATE 0.25 # 303
mASE 0.24 # 212
mAOE 0.35 # 255
mAVE 0.25 # 284
mAAE 0.14 # 70
Robust 3D Object Detection nuScenes-C CenterPoint-PP mean Corruption Error (mCE) 100.00 # 1
3D Object Detection nuScenes LiDAR only CenterPoint NDS 67.3 # 4
mAP 60.3 # 4
NDS (val) 66.8 # 3
mAP (val) 59.6 # 3
3D Object Detection waymo all_ns CenterPoint APH/L2 71.93 # 1
3D Object Detection waymo cyclist CenterPoint APH/L2 71.28 # 4
3D Object Detection waymo pedestrian CenterPoint APH/L2 71.52 # 5