Checkmate: Breaking the Memory Wall with Optimal Tensor Rematerialization

We formalize the problem of trading-off DNN training time and memory requirements as the tensor rematerialization optimization problem, a generalization of prior checkpointing strategies. We introduce Checkmate, a system that solves for optimal rematerialization schedules in reasonable times (under an hour) using off-the-shelf MILP solvers or near-optimal schedules with an approximation algorithm, then uses these schedules to accelerate millions of training iterations. Our method scales to complex, realistic architectures and is hardware-aware through the use of accelerator-specific, profile-based cost models. In addition to reducing training cost, Checkmate enables real-world networks to be trained with up to 5.1x larger input sizes. Checkmate is an open-source project, available at

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