Combating Confirmation Bias: A Unified Pseudo-Labeling Framework for Entity Alignment

5 Jul 2023  ·  Qijie Ding, Jie Yin, Daokun Zhang, Junbin Gao ·

Entity alignment (EA) aims at identifying equivalent entity pairs across different knowledge graphs (KGs) that refer to the same real-world identity. To systematically combat confirmation bias for pseudo-labeling-based entity alignment, we propose a Unified Pseudo-Labeling framework for Entity Alignment (UPL-EA) that explicitly eliminates pseudo-labeling errors to boost the accuracy of entity alignment. UPL-EA consists of two complementary components: (1) The Optimal Transport (OT)-based pseudo-labeling uses discrete OT modeling as an effective means to enable more accurate determination of entity correspondences across two KGs and to mitigate the adverse impact of erroneous matches. A simple but highly effective criterion is further devised to derive pseudo-labeled entity pairs that satisfy one-to-one correspondences at each iteration. (2) The cross-iteration pseudo-label calibration operates across multiple consecutive iterations to further improve the pseudo-labeling precision rate by reducing the local pseudo-label selection variability with a theoretical guarantee. The two components are respectively designed to eliminate Type I and Type II pseudo-labeling errors identified through our analyse. The calibrated pseudo-labels are thereafter used to augment prior alignment seeds to reinforce subsequent model training for alignment inference. The effectiveness of UPL-EA in eliminating pseudo-labeling errors is both theoretically supported and experimentally validated. The experimental results show that our approach achieves competitive performance with limited prior alignment seeds.

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