Connecting Gaze, Scene, and Attention: Generalized Attention Estimation via Joint Modeling of Gaze and Scene Saliency

This paper addresses the challenging problem of estimating the general visual attention of people in images. Our proposed method is designed to work across multiple naturalistic social scenarios and provides a full picture of the subject's attention and gaze. In contrast, earlier works on gaze and attention estimation have focused on constrained problems in more specific contexts. In particular, our model explicitly represents the gaze direction and handles out-of-frame gaze targets. We leverage three different datasets using a multi-task learning approach. We evaluate our method on widely used benchmarks for single-tasks such as gaze angle estimation and attention-within-an-image, as well as on the new challenging task of generalized visual attention prediction. In addition, we have created extended annotations for the MMDB and GazeFollow datasets which are used in our experiments, which we will publicly release.

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