Contrastive Reasoning in Neural Networks

23 Mar 2021  ·  Mohit Prabhushankar, Ghassan AlRegib ·

Neural networks represent data as projections on trained weights in a high dimensional manifold. The trained weights act as a knowledge base consisting of causal class dependencies. Inference built on features that identify these dependencies is termed as feed-forward inference. Such inference mechanisms are justified based on classical cause-to-effect inductive reasoning models. Inductive reasoning based feed-forward inference is widely used due to its mathematical simplicity and operational ease. Nevertheless, feed-forward models do not generalize well to untrained situations. To alleviate this generalization challenge, we propose using an effect-to-cause inference model that reasons abductively. Here, the features represent the change from existing weight dependencies given a certain effect. We term this change as contrast and the ensuing reasoning mechanism as contrastive reasoning. In this paper, we formalize the structure of contrastive reasoning and propose a methodology to extract a neural network's notion of contrast. We demonstrate the value of contrastive reasoning in two stages of a neural network's reasoning pipeline : in inferring and visually explaining decisions for the application of object recognition. We illustrate the value of contrastively recognizing images under distortions by reporting an improvement of 3.47%, 2.56%, and 5.48% in average accuracy under the proposed contrastive framework on CIFAR-10C, noisy STL-10, and VisDA datasets respectively.

PDF Abstract
No code implementations yet. Submit your code now

Results from the Paper

  Submit results from this paper to get state-of-the-art GitHub badges and help the community compare results to other papers.


No methods listed for this paper. Add relevant methods here