Convergence of Graph Laplacian with kNN Self-tuned Kernels

3 Nov 2020  ·  Xiuyuan Cheng, Hau-Tieng Wu ·

Kernelized Gram matrix $W$ constructed from data points $\{x_i\}_{i=1}^N$ as $W_{ij}= k_0( \frac{ \| x_i - x_j \|^2} {\sigma^2} )$ is widely used in graph-based geometric data analysis and unsupervised learning. An important question is how to choose the kernel bandwidth $\sigma$, and a common practice called self-tuned kernel adaptively sets a $\sigma_i$ at each point $x_i$ by the $k$-nearest neighbor (kNN) distance... When $x_i$'s are sampled from a $d$-dimensional manifold embedded in a possibly high-dimensional space, unlike with fixed-bandwidth kernels, theoretical results of graph Laplacian convergence with self-tuned kernels have been incomplete. This paper proves the convergence of graph Laplacian operator $L_N$ to manifold (weighted-)Laplacian for a new family of kNN self-tuned kernels $W^{(\alpha)}_{ij} = k_0( \frac{ \| x_i - x_j \|^2}{ \epsilon \hat{\rho}(x_i) \hat{\rho}(x_j)})/\hat{\rho}(x_i)^\alpha \hat{\rho}(x_j)^\alpha$, where $\hat{\rho}$ is the estimated bandwidth function {by kNN}, and the limiting operator is also parametrized by $\alpha$. When $\alpha = 1$, the limiting operator is the weighted manifold Laplacian $\Delta_p$. Specifically, we prove the point-wise convergence of $L_N f $ and convergence of the graph Dirichlet form with rates. Our analysis is based on first establishing a $C^0$ consistency for $\hat{\rho}$ which bounds the relative estimation error $|\hat{\rho} - \bar{\rho}|/\bar{\rho}$ uniformly with high probability, where $\bar{\rho} = p^{-1/d}$, and $p$ is the data density function. Our theoretical results reveal the advantage of self-tuned kernel over fixed-bandwidth kernel via smaller variance error in low-density regions. In the algorithm, no prior knowledge of $d$ or data density is needed. The theoretical results are supported by numerical experiments on simulated data and hand-written digit image data. read more

PDF Abstract
No code implementations yet. Submit your code now

Tasks


Datasets


  Add Datasets introduced or used in this paper

Results from the Paper


  Submit results from this paper to get state-of-the-art GitHub badges and help the community compare results to other papers.

Methods


No methods listed for this paper. Add relevant methods here