Accelerating the data acquisition of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
leads to a challenging ill-posed inverse problem, which has received great
interest from both the signal processing and machine learning community over
the last decades. The key ingredient to the problem is how to exploit the
temporal correlation of the MR sequence to resolve the aliasing artefact.
Traditionally, such observation led to a formulation of a non-convex
optimisation problem, which were solved using iterative algorithms. Recently,
however, deep learning based-approaches have gained significant popularity due
to its ability to solve general inversion problems. In this work, we propose a
unique, novel convolutional recurrent neural network (CRNN) architecture which
reconstructs high quality cardiac MR images from highly undersampled k-space
data by jointly exploiting the dependencies of the temporal sequences as well
as the iterative nature of the traditional optimisation algorithms. In
particular, the proposed architecture embeds the structure of the traditional
iterative algorithms, efficiently modelling the recurrence of the iterative
reconstruction stages by using recurrent hidden connections over such
iterations. In addition, spatiotemporal dependencies are simultaneously learnt
by exploiting bidirectional recurrent hidden connections across time sequences.
The proposed algorithm is able to learn both the temporal dependency and the
iterative reconstruction process effectively with only a very small number of
parameters, while outperforming current MR reconstruction methods in terms of
computational complexity, reconstruction accuracy and speed.