CPIA Dataset: A Comprehensive Pathological Image Analysis Dataset for Self-supervised Learning Pre-training

Pathological image analysis is a crucial field in computer-aided diagnosis, where deep learning is widely applied. Transfer learning using pre-trained models initialized on natural images has effectively improved the downstream pathological performance. However, the lack of sophisticated domain-specific pathological initialization hinders their potential. Self-supervised learning (SSL) enables pre-training without sample-level labels, which has great potential to overcome the challenge of expensive annotations. Thus, studies focusing on pathological SSL pre-training call for a comprehensive and standardized dataset, similar to the ImageNet in computer vision. This paper presents the comprehensive pathological image analysis (CPIA) dataset, a large-scale SSL pre-training dataset combining 103 open-source datasets with extensive standardization. The CPIA dataset contains 21,427,877 standardized images, covering over 48 organs/tissues and about 100 kinds of diseases, which includes two main data types: whole slide images (WSIs) and characteristic regions of interest (ROIs). A four-scale WSI standardization process is proposed based on the uniform resolution in microns per pixel (MPP), while the ROIs are divided into three scales artificially. This multi-scale dataset is built with the diagnosis habits under the supervision of experienced senior pathologists. The CPIA dataset facilitates a comprehensive pathological understanding and enables pattern discovery explorations. Additionally, to launch the CPIA dataset, several state-of-the-art (SOTA) baselines of SSL pre-training and downstream evaluation are specially conducted. The CPIA dataset along with baselines is available at https://github.com/zhanglab2021/CPIA_Dataset.

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