Vehicular Visible Light Positioning for Collision Avoidance and Platooning: A Survey

19 Oct 2020  ·  Burak Soner, Merve Karakas, Utku Noyan, Furkan Sahbaz, Sinem Coleri ·

Relative vehicle positioning methods can contribute to safer and more efficient autonomous driving in the future by enabling collision avoidance and platooning applications. For full automation, these applications require cm-level positioning accuracy and greater than 50 Hz update rate. Since sensor-based methods (e.g., LIDAR, cameras) have not been able to reliably satisfy these requirements under all conditions so far, complementary methods are sought. Recently, alternative methods that use visible light communication (VLC) signals from vehicle head/tail LED lights for positioning (VLP) have shown significant promise, attaining cm-level accuracy and near-kHz rate in realistic driving scenarios. These methods estimate position in two steps: 1) Relative transmitter bearings (angle) or ranges (distance) are measured based on received VLC signals, and 2) these measurements are combined to estimate relative positions of transmitters (i.e., head/tail lights). In this survey paper, we first review existing bearing/range measurement techniques and positioning algorithms for vehicular VLP. Next, we formulate two new positioning algorithms: One based on consecutive range measurements from a single receiver, and another one based on differential bearing measurements from two receivers. We analyze the performance of all methods by deriving their respective Cramer-Rao lower bounds on positioning accuracy (CRLB) and simulating them in realistic driving scenarios with challenging noise and weather conditions. Our results show that VLP methods can indeed satisfy the accuracy and rate requirements for localization in collision avoidance and platooning applications. Finally, we discuss remaining open challenges that are faced for the deployment of VLP solutions in the automotive sector.

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