DCT and DST Filtering with Sparse Graph Operators

22 Mar 2021  ·  Keng-Shih Lu, Antonio Ortega, Debargha Mukherjee, Yue Chen ·

Graph filtering is a fundamental tool in graph signal processing. Polynomial graph filters (PGFs), defined as polynomials of a fundamental graph operator, can be implemented in the vertex domain, and usually have a lower complexity than frequency domain filter implementations... In this paper, we focus on the design of filters for graphs with graph Fourier transform (GFT) corresponding to a discrete trigonometric transform (DTT), i.e., one of 8 types of discrete cosine transforms (DCT) and 8 discrete sine transforms (DST). In this case, we show that multiple sparse graph operators can be identified, which allows us to propose a generalization of PGF design: multivariate polynomial graph filter (MPGF). First, for the widely used DCT-II (type-2 DCT), we characterize a set of sparse graph operators that share the DCT-II matrix as their common eigenvector matrix. This set contains the well-known connected line graph. These sparse operators can be viewed as graph filters operating in the DCT domain, which allows us to approximate any DCT graph filter by a MPGF, leading to a design with more degrees of freedom than the conventional PGF approach. Then, we extend those results to all of the 16 DTTs as well as their 2D versions, and show how their associated sets of multiple graph operators can be determined. We demonstrate experimentally that ideal low-pass and exponential DCT/DST filters can be approximated with higher accuracy with similar runtime complexity. Finally, we apply our method to transform-type selection in a video codec, AV1, where we demonstrate significant encoding time savings, with a negligible compression loss. read more

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