Deep Bayesian Filter for Bayes-faithful Data Assimilation

29 May 2024  ·  Yuta Tarumi, Keisuke Fukuda, Shin-ichi Maeda ·

State estimation for nonlinear state space models is a challenging task. Existing assimilation methodologies predominantly assume Gaussian posteriors on physical space, where true posteriors become inevitably non-Gaussian. We propose Deep Bayesian Filtering (DBF) for data assimilation on nonlinear state space models (SSMs). DBF constructs new latent variables $h_t$ on a new latent (``fancy'') space and assimilates observations $o_t$. By (i) constraining the state transition on fancy space to be linear and (ii) learning a Gaussian inverse observation operator $q(h_t|o_t)$, posteriors always remain Gaussian for DBF. Quite distinctively, the structured design of posteriors provides an analytic formula for the recursive computation of posteriors without accumulating Monte-Carlo sampling errors over time steps. DBF seeks the Gaussian inverse observation operators $q(h_t|o_t)$ and other latent SSM parameters (e.g., dynamics matrix) by maximizing the evidence lower bound. Experiments show that DBF outperforms model-based approaches and latent assimilation methods in various tasks and conditions.

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