Deep convolutional forest: a dynamic deep ensemble approach for spam detection in text

10 Oct 2021  ·  Mai A. Shaaban, Yasser F. Hassan, Shawkat K. Guirguis ·

The increase in people's use of mobile messaging services has led to the spread of social engineering attacks like phishing, considering that spam text is one of the main factors in the dissemination of phishing attacks to steal sensitive data such as credit cards and passwords. In addition, rumors and incorrect medical information regarding the COVID-19 pandemic are widely shared on social media leading to people's fear and confusion. Thus, filtering spam content is vital to reduce risks and threats. Previous studies relied on machine learning and deep learning approaches for spam classification, but these approaches have two limitations. Machine learning models require manual feature engineering, whereas deep neural networks require a high computational cost. This paper introduces a dynamic deep ensemble model for spam detection that adjusts its complexity and extracts features automatically. The proposed model utilizes convolutional and pooling layers for feature extraction along with base classifiers such as random forests and extremely randomized trees for classifying texts into spam or legitimate ones. Moreover, the model employs ensemble learning procedures like boosting and bagging. As a result, the model achieved high precision, recall, f1-score and accuracy of 98.38\%.

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Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Benchmark
Ensemble Learning SMS Spam Collection Data Set DCF Accuracy 0.9838 # 1
Spam detection SMS Spam Collection Data Set DCF Accuracy (%) 98.39 # 1


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