Deep Learning Based Autonomous Vehicle Super Resolution DOA Estimation for Safety Driving

Abstract— In this paper, a novel system architecture including a massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) or a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) and multiple autonomous vehicles is considered in vehicle location systems. The location parameters of autonomous vehicles can be estimated based on the deep unfolding technique, which is a recent advance of deep learning. Traditional vehicle location methods such as the global position system (GPS) can only locate the target vehicles with relatively low accuracy. The super resolution cannot be achieved when two vehicles are too close, which means that the safety incidents exist when autonomous vehicles are deployed in future intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Different from the existing massive MIMO or RIS equipped with a regular array such as uniform rectangular array (URA) and uniform circular array (UCA), we exploit a massive MIMO or a RIS equipped with a conformal array extended from traditional regular array. First, the rotation from the global coordinate system to the local coordinate system is achieved based on geometric algebra. Second, 2D-DOA estimation of autonomous vehicles is modeled as a novel block sparse recovery problem. Third, the deep network architecture SBLNet is implemented to learn the nonlinear characteristic from the DOAs of autonomous vehicles and the data received by massive MIMOs or RISs. The 2D-DOA and polarization parameters can be estimated based on SBLNet with relatively low computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate that SBLNet performs better than the state-of-the-art methods in terms of estimation accuracy and successful probability. The SBLNet is also suitable for the practical scenario considering fast moving autonomous vehicles, while, the traditional block sparse recovery methods fail in this complex scenario.

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