Deep Neural-Kernel Machines

In this chapter we review the main literature related to the recent advancement of deep neural-kernel architecture, an approach that seek the synergy between two powerful class of models, i.e. kernel-based models and artificial neural networks. The introduced deep neural-kernel framework is composed of a hybridization of the neural networks architecture and a kernel machine... More precisely, for the kernel counterpart the model is based on Least Squares Support Vector Machines with explicit feature mapping. Here we discuss the use of one form of an explicit feature map obtained by random Fourier features. Thanks to this explicit feature map, in one hand bridging the two architectures has become more straightforward and on the other hand one can find the solution of the associated optimization problem in the primal, therefore making the model scalable to large scale datasets. We begin by introducing a neural-kernel architecture that serves as the core module for deeper models equipped with different pooling layers. In particular, we review three neural-kernel machines with average, maxout and convolutional pooling layers. In average pooling layer the outputs of the previous representation layers are averaged. The maxout layer triggers competition among different input representations and allows the formation of multiple sub-networks within the same model. The convolutional pooling layer reduces the dimensionality of the multi-scale output representations. Comparison with neural-kernel model, kernel based models and the classical neural networks architecture have been made and the numerical experiments illustrate the effectiveness of the introduced models on several benchmark datasets. read more

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