Paper

Discovering hidden physics using ML-based multimodal super-resolution measurement and its application to fusion plasmas

A non-linear complex system governed by multi-spatial and multi-temporal physics scales cannot be fully understood with a single diagnostic, as each provides only a partial view and much information is lost during data extraction. Combining multiple diagnostics also results in imperfect projections of the system's physics. By identifying hidden inter-correlations between diagnostics, we can leverage mutual support to fill in these gaps, but uncovering these inter-correlations analytically is too complex. We introduce a groundbreaking machine learning methodology to address this issue. Our multimodal approach generates super resolution data encompassing multiple physics phenomena, capturing detailed structural evolution and responses to perturbations previously unobservable. This methodology addresses a critical problem in fusion plasmas: the Edge Localized Mode (ELM), a plasma instability that can severely damage reactor walls. One method to stabilize ELM is using resonant magnetic perturbation to trigger magnetic islands. However, low spatial and temporal resolution of measurements limits the analysis of these magnetic islands due to their small size, rapid dynamics, and complex interactions within the plasma. With super-resolution diagnostics, we can experimentally verify theoretical models of magnetic islands for the first time, providing unprecedented insights into their role in ELM stabilization. This advancement aids in developing effective ELM suppression strategies for future fusion reactors like ITER and has broader applications, potentially revolutionizing diagnostics in fields such as astronomy, astrophysics, and medical imaging.

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