DXSLAM: A Robust and Efficient Visual SLAM System with Deep Features

A robust and efficient Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) system is essential for robot autonomy. For visual SLAM algorithms, though the theoretical framework has been well established for most aspects, feature extraction and association is still empirically designed in most cases, and can be vulnerable in complex environments. This paper shows that feature extraction with deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can be seamlessly incorporated into a modern SLAM framework. The proposed SLAM system utilizes a state-of-the-art CNN to detect keypoints in each image frame, and to give not only keypoint descriptors, but also a global descriptor of the whole image. These local and global features are then used by different SLAM modules, resulting in much more robustness against environmental changes and viewpoint changes compared with using hand-crafted features. We also train a visual vocabulary of local features with a Bag of Words (BoW) method. Based on the local features, global features, and the vocabulary, a highly reliable loop closure detection method is built. Experimental results show that all the proposed modules significantly outperforms the baseline, and the full system achieves much lower trajectory errors and much higher correct rates on all evaluated data. Furthermore, by optimizing the CNN with Intel OpenVINO toolkit and utilizing the Fast BoW library, the system benefits greatly from the SIMD (single-instruction-multiple-data) techniques in modern CPUs. The full system can run in real-time without any GPU or other accelerators. The code is public at

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