End-To-End Convolutional Neural Network for 3D Reconstruction of Knee Bones From Bi-Planar X-Ray Images

2 Apr 2020  ·  Yoni Kasten, Daniel Doktofsky, Ilya Kovler ·

We present an end-to-end Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) approach for 3D reconstruction of knee bones directly from two bi-planar X-ray images. Clinically, capturing the 3D models of the bones is crucial for surgical planning, implant fitting, and postoperative evaluation. X-ray imaging significantly reduces the exposure of patients to ionizing radiation compared to Computer Tomography (CT) imaging, and is much more common and inexpensive compared to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners. However, retrieving 3D models from such 2D scans is extremely challenging. In contrast to the common approach of statistically modeling the shape of each bone, our deep network learns the distribution of the bones' shapes directly from the training images. We train our model with both supervised and unsupervised losses using Digitally Reconstructed Radiograph (DRR) images generated from CT scans. To apply our model to X-Ray data, we use style transfer to transform between X-Ray and DRR modalities. As a result, at test time, without further optimization, our solution directly outputs a 3D reconstruction from a pair of bi-planar X-ray images, while preserving geometric constraints. Our results indicate that our deep learning model is very efficient, generalizes well and produces high quality reconstructions.

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