Learning Test-time Augmentation for Content-based Image Retrieval

5 Feb 2020  ·  Osman Tursun, Simon Denman, Sridha Sridharan, Clinton Fookes ·

Off-the-shelf convolutional neural network features achieve outstanding results in many image retrieval tasks. However, their invariance to target data is pre-defined by the network architecture and training data. Existing image retrieval approaches require fine-tuning or modification of pre-trained networks to adapt to variations unique to the target data. In contrast, our method enhances the invariance of off-the-shelf features by aggregating features extracted from images augmented at test-time, with augmentations guided by a policy learned through reinforcement learning. The learned policy assigns different magnitudes and weights to the selected transformations, which are selected from a list of image transformations. Policies are evaluated using a metric learning protocol to learn the optimal policy. The model converges quickly and the cost of each policy iteration is minimal as we propose an off-line caching technique to greatly reduce the computational cost of extracting features from augmented images. Experimental results on large trademark retrieval (METU trademark dataset) and landmark retrieval (ROxford5k and RParis6k scene datasets) tasks show that the learned ensemble of transformations is highly effective for improving performance, and is practical, and transferable.

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