Although generative adversarial networks (GANs) have shown promise in medical imaging, they have four main limitations that impeded their utility: computational cost, data requirements, reliable evaluation measures, and training complexity. Our work investigates each of these obstacles in a novel application of StyleGAN2-ADA to high-resolution medical imaging datasets. Our dataset is comprised of liver-containing axial slices from non-contrast and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans. Additionally, we utilized four public datasets composed of various imaging modalities. We trained a StyleGAN2 network with transfer learning (from the Flickr-Faces-HQ dataset) and data augmentation (horizontal flipping and adaptive discriminator augmentation). The network's generative quality was measured quantitatively with the Fr\'echet Inception Distance (FID) and qualitatively with a visual Turing test given to seven radiologists and radiation oncologists. The StyleGAN2-ADA network achieved a FID of 5.22 ($\pm$ 0.17) on our liver CT dataset. It also set new record FIDs of 10.78, 3.52, 21.17, and 5.39 on the publicly available SLIVER07, ChestX-ray14, ACDC, and Medical Segmentation Decathlon (brain tumors) datasets. In the visual Turing test, the clinicians rated generated images as real 42% of the time, approaching random guessing. Our computational ablation study revealed that transfer learning and data augmentation stabilize training and improve the perceptual quality of the generated images. We observed the FID to be consistent with human perceptual evaluation of medical images. Finally, our work found that StyleGAN2-ADA consistently produces high-quality results without hyperparameter searches or retraining.

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Results from the Paper

Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Result Benchmark
Medical Image Generation ACDC StyleGAN2-ADA FID 21.17 # 1
Medical Image Generation ChestXray14 1024x1024 StyleGAN2-ADA FID 3.52 # 1
Medical Image Generation SLIVER07 StyleGAN2-ADA FID 10.78 # 2