Exploration of Various Fractional Order Derivatives in Parkinson's Disease Dysgraphia Analysis

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with a prevalence rate estimated to 2.0% for people aged over 65 years. Cardinal motor symptoms of PD such as rigidity and bradykinesia affect the muscles involved in the handwriting process resulting in handwriting abnormalities called PD dysgraphia. Nowadays, online handwritten signal (signal with temporal information) acquired by the digitizing tablets is the most advanced approach of graphomotor difficulties analysis. Although the basic kinematic features were proved to effectively quantify the symptoms of PD dysgraphia, a recent research identified that the theory of fractional calculus can be used to improve the graphomotor difficulties analysis. Therefore, in this study, we follow up on our previous research, and we aim to explore the utilization of various approaches of fractional order derivative (FD) in the analysis of PD dysgraphia. For this purpose, we used the repetitive loops task from the Parkinson's disease handwriting database (PaHaW). Handwritten signals were parametrized by the kinematic features employing three FD approximations: Gr\"unwald-Letnikov's, Riemann-Liouville's, and Caputo's. Results of the correlation analysis revealed a significant relationship between the clinical state and the handwriting features based on the velocity. The extracted features by Caputo's FD approximation outperformed the rest of the analyzed FD approaches. This was also confirmed by the results of the classification analysis, where the best model trained by Caputo's handwriting features resulted in a balanced accuracy of 79.73% with a sensitivity of 83.78% and a specificity of 75.68%.

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