Extreme Compression of Large Language Models via Additive Quantization

The emergence of accurate open large language models (LLMs) has led to a race towards quantization techniques for such models enabling execution on end-user devices. In this paper, we revisit the problem of "extreme" LLM compression--defined as targeting extremely low bit counts, such as 2 to 3 bits per parameter, from the point of view of classic methods in Multi-Codebook Quantization (MCQ). Our work builds on top of Additive Quantization, a classic algorithm from the MCQ family, and adapts it to the quantization of language models. The resulting algorithm advances the state-of-the-art in LLM compression, outperforming all recently-proposed techniques in terms of accuracy at a given compression budget. For instance, when compressing Llama 2 models to 2 bits per parameter, our algorithm quantizes the 7B model to 6.93 perplexity (a 1.29 improvement relative to the best prior work, and 1.81 points from FP16), the 13B model to 5.70 perplexity (a .36 improvement) and the 70B model to 3.94 perplexity (a .22 improvement) on WikiText2. We release our implementation of Additive Quantization for Language Models AQLM as a baseline to facilitate future research in LLM quantization.

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