FedWOA: A Federated Learning Model that uses the Whale Optimization Algorithm for Renewable Energy Prediction

19 Sep 2023  ·  Viorica Chifu, Tudor Cioara, Cristian Anitiei, Cristina Pop, Ionut Anghel ·

Privacy is important when dealing with sensitive personal information in machine learning models, which require large data sets for training. In the energy field, access to household prosumer energy data is crucial for energy predictions to support energy grid management and large-scale adoption of renewables however citizens are often hesitant to grant access to cloud-based machine learning models. Federated learning has been proposed as a solution to privacy challenges however report issues in generating the global prediction model due to data heterogeneity, variations in generation patterns, and the high number of parameters leading to even lower prediction accuracy. This paper addresses these challenges by introducing FedWOA a novel federated learning model that employs the Whale Optimization Algorithm to aggregate global prediction models from the weights of local LTSM neural network models trained on prosumer energy data. The proposed solution identifies the optimal vector of weights in the search spaces of the local models to construct the global shared model and then is subsequently transmitted to the local nodes to improve the prediction quality at the prosumer site while for handling non-IID data K-Means was used for clustering prosumers with similar scale of energy data. The evaluation results on prosumers energy data have shown that FedWOA can effectively enhance the accuracy of energy prediction models accuracy by 25% for MSE and 16% for MAE compared to FedAVG while demonstrating good convergence and reduced loss.

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