Gaussian process regression can turn non-uniform and undersampled diffusion MRI data into diffusion spectrum imaging

9 Nov 2016  ·  Jens Sjölund, Anders Eklund, Evren Özarslan, Hans Knutsson ·

We propose to use Gaussian process regression to accurately estimate the diffusion MRI signal at arbitrary locations in q-space. By estimating the signal on a grid, we can do synthetic diffusion spectrum imaging: reconstructing the ensemble averaged propagator (EAP) by an inverse Fourier transform. We also propose an alternative reconstruction method guaranteeing a nonnegative EAP that integrates to unity. The reconstruction is validated on data simulated from two Gaussians at various crossing angles. Moreover, we demonstrate on non-uniformly sampled in vivo data that the method is far superior to linear interpolation, and allows a drastic undersampling of the data with only a minor loss of accuracy. We envision the method as a potential replacement for standard diffusion spectrum imaging, in particular when acquistion time is limited.

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