Gegenbauer Graph Neural Networks for Time-varying Signal Reconstruction

28 Mar 2024  ·  Jhon A. Castro-Correa, Jhony H. Giraldo, Mohsen Badiey, Fragkiskos D. Malliaros ·

Reconstructing time-varying graph signals (or graph time-series imputation) is a critical problem in machine learning and signal processing with broad applications, ranging from missing data imputation in sensor networks to time-series forecasting. Accurately capturing the spatio-temporal information inherent in these signals is crucial for effectively addressing these tasks. However, existing approaches relying on smoothness assumptions of temporal differences and simple convex optimization techniques have inherent limitations. To address these challenges, we propose a novel approach that incorporates a learning module to enhance the accuracy of the downstream task. To this end, we introduce the Gegenbauer-based graph convolutional (GegenConv) operator, which is a generalization of the conventional Chebyshev graph convolution by leveraging the theory of Gegenbauer polynomials. By deviating from traditional convex problems, we expand the complexity of the model and offer a more accurate solution for recovering time-varying graph signals. Building upon GegenConv, we design the Gegenbauer-based time Graph Neural Network (GegenGNN) architecture, which adopts an encoder-decoder structure. Likewise, our approach also utilizes a dedicated loss function that incorporates a mean squared error component alongside Sobolev smoothness regularization. This combination enables GegenGNN to capture both the fidelity to ground truth and the underlying smoothness properties of the signals, enhancing the reconstruction performance. We conduct extensive experiments on real datasets to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed approach. The experimental results demonstrate that GegenGNN outperforms state-of-the-art methods, showcasing its superior capability in recovering time-varying graph signals.

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