Generalized Max Pooling

CVPR 2014  ·  Naila Murray, Florent Perronnin ·

State-of-the-art patch-based image representations involve a pooling operation that aggregates statistics computed from local descriptors. Standard pooling operations include sum- and max-pooling. Sum-pooling lacks discriminability because the resulting representation is strongly influenced by frequent yet often uninformative descriptors, but only weakly influenced by rare yet potentially highly-informative ones. Max-pooling equalizes the influence of frequent and rare descriptors but is only applicable to representations that rely on count statistics, such as the bag-of-visual-words (BOV) and its soft- and sparse-coding extensions. We propose a novel pooling mechanism that achieves the same effect as max-pooling but is applicable beyond the BOV and especially to the state-of-the-art Fisher Vector -- hence the name Generalized Max Pooling (GMP). It involves equalizing the similarity between each patch and the pooled representation, which is shown to be equivalent to re-weighting the per-patch statistics. We show on five public image classification benchmarks that the proposed GMP can lead to significant performance gains with respect to heuristic alternatives.

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