Graph Transformer Networks: Learning Meta-path Graphs to Improve GNNs

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have been widely applied to various fields due to their powerful representations of graph-structured data. Despite the success of GNNs, most existing GNNs are designed to learn node representations on the fixed and homogeneous graphs. The limitations especially become problematic when learning representations on a misspecified graph or a heterogeneous graph that consists of various types of nodes and edges. To address this limitations, we propose Graph Transformer Networks (GTNs) that are capable of generating new graph structures, which preclude noisy connections and include useful connections (e.g., meta-paths) for tasks, while learning effective node representations on the new graphs in an end-to-end fashion. We further propose enhanced version of GTNs, Fast Graph Transformer Networks (FastGTNs), that improve scalability of graph transformations. Compared to GTNs, FastGTNs are 230x faster and use 100x less memory while allowing the identical graph transformations as GTNs. In addition, we extend graph transformations to the semantic proximity of nodes allowing non-local operations beyond meta-paths. Extensive experiments on both homogeneous graphs and heterogeneous graphs show that GTNs and FastGTNs with non-local operations achieve the state-of-the-art performance for node classification tasks. The code is available:

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