Extraction from raw text to a knowledge base of entities and fine-grained
types is often cast as prediction into a flat set of entity and type labels,
neglecting the rich hierarchies over types and entities contained in curated
ontologies. Previous attempts to incorporate hierarchical structure have
yielded little benefit and are restricted to shallow ontologies. This paper
presents new methods using real and complex bilinear mappings for integrating
hierarchical information, yielding substantial improvement over flat
predictions in entity linking and fine-grained entity typing, and achieving new
state-of-the-art results for end-to-end models on the benchmark FIGER dataset.
We also present two new human-annotated datasets containing wide and deep
hierarchies which we will release to the community to encourage further
research in this direction: MedMentions, a collection of PubMed abstracts in
which 246k mentions have been mapped to the massive UMLS ontology; and TypeNet,
which aligns Freebase types with the WordNet hierarchy to obtain nearly 2k
entity types. In experiments on all three datasets we show substantial gains
from hierarchy-aware training.