High Resolution Solar Image Generation using Generative Adversarial Networks

7 Jun 2021  ·  Ankan Dash, Junyi Ye, Guiling Wang ·

We applied Deep Learning algorithm known as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to perform solar image-to-image translation. That is, from Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager(HMI) line of sight magnetogram images to SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly(AIA) 0304-{\AA} images. The Ultraviolet(UV)/Extreme Ultraviolet(EUV) observations like the SDO/AIA0304-{\AA} images were only made available to scientists in the late 1990s even though the magenetic field observations like the SDO/HMI have been available since the 1970s. Therefore by leveraging Deep Learning algorithms like GANs we can give scientists access to complete datasets for analysis. For generating high resolution solar images we use the Pix2PixHD and Pix2Pix algorithms. The Pix2PixHD algorithm was specifically designed for high resolution image generation tasks, and the Pix2Pix algorithm is by far the most widely used image to image translation algorithm. For training and testing we used the data for the year 2012, 2013 and 2014. The results show that our deep learning models are capable of generating high resolution(1024 x 1024 pixels) AIA0304 images from HMI magnetograms. Specifically, the pixel-to-pixel Pearson Correlation Coefficient of the images generated by Pix2PixHD and original images is as high as 0.99. The number is 0.962 if Pix2Pix is used to generate images. The results we get for our Pix2PixHD model is better than the results obtained by previous works done by others to generate AIA0304 images. Thus, we can use these models to generate AIA0304 images when the AIA0304 data is not available which can be used for understanding space weather and giving researchers the capability to predict solar events such as Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. As far as we know, our work is the first attempt to leverage Pix2PixHD algorithm for SDO/HMI to SDO/AIA0304 image-to-image translation.

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