High-Throughput Precision Phenotyping of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy with Cardiovascular Deep Learning

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) results from chronic remodeling caused by a broad range of systemic and cardiovascular disease including hypertension, aortic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and cardiac amyloidosis. Early detection and characterization of LVH can significantly impact patient care but is limited by under-recognition of hypertrophy, measurement error and variability, and difficulty differentiating etiologies of LVH. To overcome this challenge, we present EchoNet-LVH - a deep learning workflow that automatically quantifies ventricular hypertrophy with precision equal to human experts and predicts etiology of LVH. Trained on 28,201 echocardiogram videos, our model accurately measures intraventricular wall thickness (mean absolute error [MAE] 1.4mm, 95% CI 1.2-1.5mm), left ventricular diameter (MAE 2.4mm, 95% CI 2.2-2.6mm), and posterior wall thickness (MAE 1.2mm, 95% CI 1.1-1.3mm) and classifies cardiac amyloidosis (area under the curve of 0.83) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AUC 0.98) from other etiologies of LVH. In external datasets from independent domestic and international healthcare systems, EchoNet-LVH accurately quantified ventricular parameters (R2 of 0.96 and 0.90 respectively) and detected cardiac amyloidosis (AUC 0.79) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AUC 0.89) on the domestic external validation site. Leveraging measurements across multiple heart beats, our model can more accurately identify subtle changes in LV geometry and its causal etiologies. Compared to human experts, EchoNet-LVH is fully automated, allowing for reproducible, precise measurements, and lays the foundation for precision diagnosis of cardiac hypertrophy. As a resource to promote further innovation, we also make publicly available a large dataset of 23,212 annotated echocardiogram videos.

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