Hop-Count Based Self-Supervised Anomaly Detection on Attributed Networks

Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of interest in the problem of anomaly detection on attributed networks due to its importance in both research and practice. Although various approaches have been proposed to solve this problem, two major limitations exist: (1) unsupervised approaches usually work much less efficiently due to the lack of supervisory signal, and (2) existing anomaly detection methods only use local contextual information to detect anomalous nodes, e.g., one- or two-hop information, but ignore the global contextual information. Since anomalous nodes differ from normal nodes in structures and attributes, it is intuitive that the distance between anomalous nodes and their neighbors should be larger than that between normal nodes and their neighbors if we remove the edges connecting anomalous and normal nodes. Thus, hop counts based on both global and local contextual information can be served as the indicators of anomaly. Motivated by this intuition, we propose a hop-count based model (HCM) to detect anomalies by modeling both local and global contextual information. To make better use of hop counts for anomaly identification, we propose to use hop counts prediction as a self-supervised task. We design two anomaly scores based on the hop counts prediction via HCM model to identify anomalies. Besides, we employ Bayesian learning to train HCM model for capturing uncertainty in learned parameters and avoiding overfitting. Extensive experiments on real-world attributed networks demonstrate that our proposed model is effective in anomaly detection.

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