Improved Image Set Classification via Joint Sparse Approximated Nearest Subspaces

Existing multi-model approaches for image set classification extract local models by clustering each image set individually only once, with fixed clusters used for matching with other image sets. However, this may result in the two closest clusters to represent different characteristics of an object, due to different undesirable environmental conditions (such as variations in illumination and pose). To address this problem, we propose to constrain the clustering of each query image set by forcing the clusters to have resemblance to the clusters in the gallery image sets. We first define a Frobenius norm distance between subspaces over Grassmann manifolds based on reconstruction error. We then extract local linear subspaces from a gallery image set via sparse representation. For each local linear subspace, we adaptively construct the corresponding closest subspace from the samples of a probe image set by joint sparse representation. We show that by minimising the sparse representation reconstruction error, we approach the nearest point on a Grassmann manifold. Experiments on Honda, ETH-80 and Cambridge-Gesture datasets show that the proposed method consistently outperforms several other recent techniques, such as Affine Hull based Image Set Distance (AHISD), Sparse Approximated Nearest Points (SANP) and Manifold Discriminant Analysis (MDA).

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