Incorporating Literals into Knowledge Graph Embeddings

Knowledge graphs, on top of entities and their relationships, contain other important elements: literals. Literals encode interesting properties (e.g. the height) of entities that are not captured by links between entities alone. Most of the existing work on embedding (or latent feature) based knowledge graph analysis focuses mainly on the relations between entities. In this work, we study the effect of incorporating literal information into existing link prediction methods. Our approach, which we name LiteralE, is an extension that can be plugged into existing latent feature methods. LiteralE merges entity embeddings with their literal information using a learnable, parametrized function, such as a simple linear or nonlinear transformation, or a multilayer neural network. We extend several popular embedding models based on LiteralE and evaluate their performance on the task of link prediction. Despite its simplicity, LiteralE proves to be an effective way to incorporate literal information into existing embedding based methods, improving their performance on different standard datasets, which we augmented with their literals and provide as testbed for further research.

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