Inverse Extended Kalman Filter -- Part I: Fundamentals

5 Jan 2022  ·  Himali Singh, Arpan Chattopadhyay, Kumar Vijay Mishra ·

Recent advances in counter-adversarial systems have garnered significant research attention to inverse filtering from a Bayesian perspective. For example, interest in estimating the adversary's Kalman filter tracked estimate with the purpose of predicting the adversary's future steps has led to recent formulations of inverse Kalman filter (I-KF). In this context of inverse filtering, we address the key challenges of non-linear process dynamics and unknown input to the forward filter by proposing an inverse extended Kalman filter (I-EKF). The purpose of this paper and the companion paper (Part II) is to develop the theory of I-EKF in detail. In this paper, we assume perfect system model information and derive I-EKF with and without an unknown input when both forward and inverse state-space models are non-linear. In the process, I-KF-with-unknown-input is also obtained. We then provide theoretical stability guarantees using both bounded non-linearity and unknown matrix approaches. Numerical experiments validate our methods for various proposed inverse filters using the recursive Cram\'{e}r-Rao lower bound as a benchmark. In the companion paper (Part II), we further generalize these formulations to highly non-linear models and propose reproducing kernel Hilbert space-based EKF to handle incomplete system model information.

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