iPhantom: a framework for automated creation of individualized computational phantoms and its application to CT organ dosimetry

Objective: This study aims to develop and validate a novel framework, iPhantom, for automated creation of patient-specific phantoms or digital-twins (DT) using patient medical images. The framework is applied to assess radiation dose to radiosensitive organs in CT imaging of individual patients. Method: From patient CT images, iPhantom segments selected anchor organs (e.g. liver, bones, pancreas) using a learning-based model developed for multi-organ CT segmentation. Organs challenging to segment (e.g. intestines) are incorporated from a matched phantom template, using a diffeomorphic registration model developed for multi-organ phantom-voxels. The resulting full-patient phantoms are used to assess organ doses during routine CT exams. Result: iPhantom was validated on both the XCAT (n=50) and an independent clinical (n=10) dataset with similar accuracy. iPhantom precisely predicted all organ locations with good accuracy of Dice Similarity Coefficients (DSC) >0.6 for anchor organs and DSC of 0.3-0.9 for all other organs. iPhantom showed less than 10% dose errors for the majority of organs, which was notably superior to the state-of-the-art baseline method (20-35% dose errors). Conclusion: iPhantom enables automated and accurate creation of patient-specific phantoms and, for the first time, provides sufficient and automated patient-specific dose estimates for CT dosimetry. Significance: The new framework brings the creation and application of CHPs to the level of individual CHPs through automation, achieving a wider and precise organ localization, paving the way for clinical monitoring, and personalized optimization, and large-scale research.

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